The study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the Special Rice Project (SRP) on rice production in Kwara state, Nigeria. Specifically, Edu and Patigi Local Government Areas of Kwara State were purposively selected because of the predominance of rice farming activities in the two local governments in the study area. A stratified random sampling technique of 204 rice farmers was used, where 140 farmers were selected from 6 circles in Patigi LGA comprising 70 participating SRP farmers and another 70 non-participating SRP. Also in Edu LGA, another 64 rice farmers were similarly selected from three extension circle comprising 32 SRP participating farmers and 32 non-participating SRP farmers. The data analyses reveals that SRP participating farmers accessed major rice production inputs at a relatively subsidized price while; non-participating SRP farmers accessed these inputs at higher prices. The result also shows that participating farmers in SRP cultivated on the average, more farm size, recorded higher yields/hectare and had higher average income/annnum than non-participating SRP farmers. The result of t-test analysis indicates a significant difference in the cost of farm inputs used by participating and non-participating farmers in SRP (t=4.537, p<0.05). Also Pearson Correlation result shows significant relationship between farm inputs used and socio-economic status of rice farmers (r=0.223, P<0.05). This study concludes that SRP significantly reduced the cost of farm operation, increased the yield and income of participating farmers. It subsequently recommends the expansion of SRP to cover all categories of rice farmers in the study area.
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