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Welcome to European/American Journals

EAJ is an international platform designed for researchers to publish their research. European – American Journals are run by the European Centre for Research, Training and Development (ECRTD), UK. The Centre consists of both researchers in specific fields and multidisciplinary researchers of long-standing and emerging knowledge from around the globe. ECRTD focuses on providing high quality academic research with practical implications for business practice. Its Journals are peer- reviewed and published in March, June, September and December.

ECRTD welcomes original contributions in applied research, critical reviews, empirical papers, case studies and analytical papers and publishes in both printed and online versions.

ECRTD Recent Books and Dissertation Release

Translation Shifts in Al-Haloul’s Arabic Translation of Hemingway’s “Big Two-Hearted River”: A Study Based on Leuven-Zwart’s Model

The study aims to describe translation shifts in Al-Haloul’s Arabic translation of Hemingway’s “Big Two-Hearted River” using Leuven-Zwart’s comparative-descriptive model. The main objective of the study is to identify the types and frequencies of shifts in the microstructural elements of the target text. In addition, the study examines the factors and constraints that give rise to the shifts. The study also describes the consequences of the consistent usage of specific types of shifts on the macrostructure of the target text. The final objective of the study is to examine the appropriateness of Leuven-Zwart’s model for describing the shifts utilized by the translator to render a narrative text from English into Arabic. For the purpose of the study, the researcher follows a descriptive analysis methodology to analyze 27 passages extracted from Hemingway’s short story “Big TwoHearted River” and their Arabic translations. The findings of the study revealed that all Leuven-Zwart’s types of translation shifts were identified with modification shifts as the most frequent types of shifts while mutation shifts were the least frequent ones. Syntactic modification, in terms of thematic meaning, explicitation, and function words, had the highest frequency. The researcher came to the conclusion that translation shifts were not only an appropriate solution to translation problems resulting from the discrepancy between the SL and the TL, but were also motivated by linguistic, cultural and psycholinguistic factors. It was also concluded that the translator aimed at making the text more comprehensible, explicit, and coherent for the target readership. The researcher finally emphasizes the importance of including the study of translation shifts and their macro effects in translation curriculum.

LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF LEGAL LANGUAGE: A CONTRASTIVE STUDY OF SAUDI ARABIA AND CANADA LABOUR LAWS

Legal discourse has numerous linguistic features that make it of a special nature. While legal documents attempt to achieve certain aims, such as objectivity and obligation, such aims can be realized in different ways by different languages. This paper aims to reveal the linguistic features of written legal discourse in terms of obligation, permission and prohibition. These features are detected on both English and Arabic legal documents. The paper also aims to show the similarities and differences between English and Arabic through the analysis of selected sentences from the corpus of legal documents under examination. Following the descriptive analysis and with the use of quantitive approach, the linguistic features of the legal language of both English and Arabic is analyzed individually, then the similarities and differences between both languages is discussed. One of the major concerns of this paper is deontic modality and the way it functions in legal language.

Appraising Nigeria’s Implementation of the National Policy of 35% Affirmative Action for Women 1999-2016

This paper appraised Nigeria’s Implementation of the National Policy of 35% Affirmative Action for Women from 1999-2016. The objective of the study is to examine the extent to which the 35% Affirmative Action for Women has been realized in Nigeria taking due cognizance of how poverty and literacy rates affect women political participation in the country. In the light of the feminist theory and with the aid of content analysis techniques, it is observed that the 35% Affirmative Action for women has not be realized in Nigeria because of high poverty rate and low literacy rate among women as well as non-application of compulsory party-based implementation strategies. It is argued that even poverty reduction and improvement of literacy rate among women may not always guarantee the realization of the 35% affirmative action without compulsory part-based enforcement strategies. It is therefore recommended that realizing the 35% Affirmative Action for Women in Nigeria requires not just poverty reduction and enhancing literacy rate among women but also effective application of compulsory party-based implementation strategies.

Peter James Kpolovie – Statistical Analysis with SPSS for Research

This ground-breaking book is an indispensable practical guide to the successful execution of research with particular attention to data analysis to arrive at indisputable findings, conclusions, and generalizations. Studying this book endows you with the requisite mastery knowledge for personally applying the most appropriate statistical tests accurately, swiftly, effortlessly and pleasurably in situations of data analysis. It is a most clearly written modem and practical book with simple, direct, easy-to-understand and highly motivating information. It presents a fresh approach to the teaching, learning and application of statistics as an exciting field that has very central and robust place in research in particular, and in virtually all spheres of human endeavor. Every user of this book can personally apply IBM SPSS® Statistics skilfully and correctly in analysing different sorts of research data. Get a copy of the book straightaway.

EXPLORING NURSES AND PHYSICIANS COMMUNICATION IN THE EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT

Communication among health professionals in the emergency department, especially nurses and physicians, is very important. Effective nurses–physicians communication can greatly reduce the number of medical errors and fatalities that occur in the emergency department. The aim of this study is to explore the communication experiences of nurses and physicians working in the emergency department in a hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The ultimate research participants will be eight physicians and nurses from an emergency department. The research design will be a qualitative phenomenological hermeneutic approach and will use the interpretive method for data collection. The significance of this study is to determine influence of communication on quality of care, particularly in the emergency department, and understand factors that hinder effective communication of nurses and physicians in the emergency department. Communication comprises the intrapersonal and interpersonal interactions between nurses and physicians and their external influences on patient outcomes. Moreover, communication lacks clarity; more clarification could help improve and enhance communication among professionals of emergency department, as well as patient outcomes.

IMPACT OF SUPPLY CHAIN INTEGRATION STRATEGIES ON PERFORMANCE OF PORK PROCESSING INDUSTRY IN RWANDA

Supply chain integration (SCI) is a useful approach to improve various measures of firm performance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of supply chain integration strategies on performance of pork processing industry in Rwanda. The study employed a quantitative research design in order to address to the research objective. The target population was the 52 employees of German butchery in Kigali. Due to the small size of the population, there was no need of sampling. Therefore all the 52 employees were obtained through census method and were recruited to the study. Questionnaires were used to collect information regarding internal integration, supplier integration, customer integration and performance of the firms. Questionnaires were distributed through drop and pick method to avoid inconveniencing the respondents during working hours. Data collected was edited and analysed using SPSS. The results indicated that there was a positive and significant correlation between internal integration, supplier integration, customer integration and performance of the firm. The study was about the impact of customer integration, supplier integration and internal integration on pork industry. The study recommended that the industry managers should ensure that the extents of integration of the three variables are enhanced. The study further recommended that a study that will assess the challenges affecting supply chain integration in the pork industry should be conducted in the ffuture. Future study that will assess the barriers of implementation of supply chain integration strategies in pork industry was also recommended.

INFLUENCE OF COMMUNICATION BETWEEN NURSES AND PHYSICIANS ON PATIENT OUTCOME IN HOSPITAL SETTINGS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Throughout the world, working in the health care field is considered hard and difficult. Nurses and physicians as professionals in the health care field work to provide the best care for patients. Due to the work of the professionals as a team, communication is an important and essential component of care for patients with good quality (Morgan, 2013). From the authors’ experience as nurses, it seems clear that communication plays a crucial role in the care of patients and among healthcare providers. Patients need to communicate with health professionals which may help them to understand of intervention of care. Healthcare providers must realize the importance of communication and take into account the impact communication on patient outcome. The motivation to choose this topic was to describe the influence of communication between nurses and physicians on the patient outcome.